Frequently Asked Questions

Full FAQ List by Topic

Sales and ordering (15)

ActiveTwo is provided with drivers and host data acquisition software for Windows and Mac computers, and drivers also exist for Linux. Note that certain applications, such as event-related potentials, often require a separate computer to run experimental control / stimulus delivery software.

In brief, the computer requirements for the ActiView data acquisition software are:

  • Operating system: Windows 7, 8, or 10 or Mac OS X
  • RAM: 8 GB or more
  • Hard Drive: recommend 250 GB, but user should anticipate free space needed for data (file size in bytes is approximately = 3 X AD rate in Hz X number of channels X number of seconds recorded)
  • Display: 1440 X 900 or higher resolution display
  • One free USB port

Note: The ActiveTwo computer DOES NOT NEED A PARALLEL PORT.  A parallel port on the experimental control computer can be used to send stimuli to ActiveTwo.

In addition, the following are recommended for the ActiView computer:

  • Network interface and remote storage for data backups
  • Accessories such as KVMA switch box, extra monitor / keyboard / mouse, extension cables, etc to permit access to the EEG display from the separate room for the subject

The ActiveTwo Base System has no channels. The Base System consists of the parts that every ActiveTwo system needs to have, but excludes the parts that are used to custom configure ActiveTwo for various purposes, like amplifier/converter (AC modules).  The AC modules give the system the capacity to record from active electrodes. With four of the eight channel modules, the base system will have the capacity for 32 channels. If you want 32 electrodes on the scalp, then you need four modules, but if you also want to use four individual flat-type electrodes, you need another eight-channel module (four modules for EEG and one module for EXG1-8). The modules have eight channels, so you can only expand the system in increments of eight channels. You don’t have to buy the electrodes to use with EXG5-8, but you need the eight channel module.

Maybe.  There is no way the EEG system can harm the TMS system, but there are some TMS systems that are essentially useless with some EEG systems.  You need a a suitable combination of features in each to be successful at all in using TMS with EEG.

Desirable attributes:

  • Coils designed specifically for use with EEG will have a cable that exits the coil tangential to the head surface so that the coil does not pass close by EEG electrodes and cables.
  • A coil to be used with EEG should be passively cooled, since active cooling by means of a fan will induce electromagnetic interference in the EEG.
  • The TMS recharge mechanism should be designed to avoid inducing electromagnetic artifacts in the EEG.
  • The TMS system should be shielded so that no more than 3 milligauss of electromagnetic interference from the TMS system’s power supply reaches the electrodes and cables.
  • The TMS system should be able to produce a TMS pulse in response to an input trigger with a low and predictable latency.  Long, but especially unpredictable latency in responding to an input trigger will result in TMS artifacts that are difficult to impossible to remove from the EEG.

Aside from attributes of the TMS system, there are also important considerations regarding the EEG system in this relationship. See the other FAQ entry on that topic.

No.  There are a few special attributes that are required and others that are desirable.

Required attributes:

  • Inputs should be protected so that they are not damaged by the TMS pulse
  • Frequency response on all channels should be from DC on the low end, since AC coupled inputs will “ring” when presented with a large voltage transient like the TMS artifact

Desirable attributes:

  • Electrodes should have a low-profile so that the TMS coil can be placed as near the head as possible, maximizing penetration depth and current delivery
  • It is important for the EEG system to be able to trigger the TMS system at precisely the same phase with respect to the EEG samples each time a stimulus is delivered.  This will improve the performance of artifact removal algorithms

Aside from attributes of the EEG system, there are also important considerations regarding the TMS system in this relationship. See the other FAQ entry on that topic.

Electrodes and head caps can have positions derived from systems based on the International 1020 System.  When the positions are based on 1020, the labels on the caps and electrodes can either be the actual 1020 position names (such as Fp1, Cz, etc) or they can be what is called ABC, which actually means A1, A2, …A32, B1, B2,…B32, etc  Another way to refer to the ABC labeling is arbitrary alphanumeric.  The 1020 system is not arbitrary because the names are based on anatomical landmarks and the odd=left and even=right numbering is predictable and interpretable.  When you have only one type of cap in your lab, it makes sense to use 1020 labels for caps with positions based on the 1020 system.  However, if you have 32 channel caps AND 64 channel caps, then you might find it useful to be able to use the A1-32 labels for the A cable and the B1-32 labels for the B cable and complementary A1-32 labels on the 32 channel caps and A1-B32 labels on the 64 channel caps.  This way, the A cable can be used for the whole head in 32 channel studies of for just the left side of the head in 64 channel studies.  This does provide a short term savings if you don’t want to have two A cables on-hand, but using 1020 labels on everything is more convenient and at the limit it will not cost any more (because cables that are used less frequently will last longer).

We know that nothing makes a laboratory more productive than well-maintained equipment and a staff that is well-trained in its use.  Take advantage of our service options to safeguard the investment you have made in our products.

Support above-and-beyond warranty related issues is offered in the form of Service Level Agreements.  If there are no specific problems with the product, then the type of support you are looking for would be covered under a Service Level Agreement (SLA).

As implied by the name, differing “levels” of service are offered, and you can choose the level of support that best suits you.  SLAs offer technical support coverage over-and-above the basic product warranty, and they are priced accordingly.

SLAs are offered on most products, so this is an important option to consider at the point of purchase.  Although it is usually better to purchase the SLA up-front, if you realize after you have received a product that you will need a higher level of support, it is possible to purchase an SLA after-the-fact.

Two SLA options are available:

  • Level 1 / Distance Support – This SLA offers support for up to 10 incidents with a specific product by telephone, fax or e-mail.  An incident is classified as a question concerning a specific function of a given product.  We expect most of these incidents to be of the “how do I use this product to achieve the following” ilk.  A Level 1 SLA also includes parts, labor and one-way shipping for repairs on covered products.
  • Level 2 / On-Site Support – This SLA offers unlimited distance support incidents plus on-site support for up to 2 incidents.  A Level 2 SLA also includes parts, labor and one-way shipping for repairs on covered products.  As a further safeguard, a Level 2 SLA also includes an annual on-site preventative maintenance visit.
Please contact us if you would like to purchase an SLA.

When you purchase a new laboratory instrument, you want to get started using it and producing results as quickly as possible, and nothing helps you accomplish this goal faster than having a trained technician visit your lab to install the system and configure it optimally for your purposes. From our perspective, you will have the best possible experience with our products when the equipment is setup and configured properly and you are properly trained from the beginning. Installation visits are not included in the pricing on our standard price list, but we do generally include an optional installation fee on quotations. We find that customers who receive assistance from the beginning have fewer questions later and have more success using the equipment. We encourage you to invest in this valuable service.  If you would like to arrange an installation and training visit, please contact us!

We will always do our best to respond quickly when you need something urgently.  It helps us immensely if you plan ahead and give us a little advance warning if you foresee a deadline approaching by which you need parts, supplies or repairs to be complete.

For new purchases, we can often pre-order goods for established customers, even before the official institutional PO has been received.  Give us a heads-up as soon as you know that you intend to order items we have quoted you, and if you expect to have the official PO within 30 days, and you agree to let us know if anything changes, we will pre-order the goods for you based on your word.

For repairs, we know how vital our equipment is to your work, so we always do our best to respond quickly to urgent repair requests.  One important point — the earlier we know the date by which a repaired item must be received back, the sooner we can let you know whether we will or will not be able to meet that deadline.  Ultimately, the most valuable thing you can do to ensure we meet your deadlines is to notify us of those deadlines as early as possible!

Cortech Solutions is the exclusive reseller in the USA and Canada for these product lines:

  • Artinis
  • Biosemi
  • Bittium (formerly MEGA)
  • Cambridge Research Systems
  • Mag and More
  • NeuroImaging Solutions (NIS)

For most of the products we sell, our territory includes USA and Canada.

For products we manufacture, we are able to see throughout the world, but we may put you in touch with a local or regional representative to ensure the most convenient customer experience for you.

See our contact details page.

The inside diameter of adhesive ring should be about the same size as, or larger than, the diameter of the electrode contact.  The inside diameter of the adhesive ring should not be larger than the outer diameter of the electrode housing.  The outside diameter minus the center hole determines how much surface area contacts the skin, thus determining how tightly the adhesive will adhere to the skin.  Also, the outside diameter will limit how close you can place electrodes to one another and to other features, such as the eyes.

Using ActiveTwo as an example, the electrode contact on a flat-type electrode has a diameter of about 4.5 mm.  An adhesive ring with 5 mm id (center hole) would be  idea, but the 5×13 adhesives are rather expensive because they are manufactured in Europe.  We recommend using a 4×19 or a 4×12 adhesive ring.  The 4×12 is a good choice when placing the electrodes close to one another or close to the eyes for startle measurements.  The 4×19 is a good choice when you have plenty of room and the primary concern is how well the electrodes stick to the skin.

Complete systems and large orders of accessories may take 6-9 weeks for delivery except in special circumstances.  Many smaller accessory orders can be delivered within a few days or a couple of weeks, depending on whether the item is in stock in our US office.  Consumable supplies are normally in stock and ready to ship the same day.  Delivery within the US and Canada normally takes 3 days or less, but precisely how long it takes depends on the mode of shipment.  Also, deliveries in large urban areas are often quicker than to less densely populated areas, and deliveries within the US are quicker than to Canada or MExico.  Add one to two days for customs clearance into Canada or Mexico.

If you are an established customer (have ordered from us in the past) then you can order via our website. If your institution / lab have an established account but you have never communicated with us by e-mail, you may need to use the Request Info form to let us know to add you to the contact list and associate you with a particular account. It is helpful if you can provide your lab’s account number (from any quote, invoice or work order) since that helps us avoid associating you with another account at the same institution or another lab at another institution with the same PI.

Anyone can order from us by e-mail or fax when responding to a valid proposal issued by Cortech Solutions. For institutions with established credit, we accept POs with payment by check or credit card. Private companies have the option of inquiring about establishing credit (credit application) or paying by credit card or check in advance of delivery.

If your institution requires a PO for us to get paid, then you need to send us a PO to place an order. The PO should indicate the items you want to order, the prices you expect to pay, the method of payment, and the billing and shipping addresses.

If you will pay by CC or check in advance and your institution does not require a PO to pay by these means, then you can place an order in response to a written proposal by signing the proposal, confirming the shipping and billing addresses, indicating the method of payment and including payment details such as credit card number, etc. We recommend calling in your CC information to our main number, but our fax is secure, so you may fax it to us if you wish.

Support (12)

ActiveTwo is provided with drivers and host data acquisition software for Windows and Mac computers, and drivers also exist for Linux. Note that certain applications, such as event-related potentials, often require a separate computer to run experimental control / stimulus delivery software.

In brief, the computer requirements for the ActiView data acquisition software are:

  • Operating system: Windows 7, 8, or 10 or Mac OS X
  • RAM: 8 GB or more
  • Hard Drive: recommend 250 GB, but user should anticipate free space needed for data (file size in bytes is approximately = 3 X AD rate in Hz X number of channels X number of seconds recorded)
  • Display: 1440 X 900 or higher resolution display
  • One free USB port

Note: The ActiveTwo computer DOES NOT NEED A PARALLEL PORT.  A parallel port on the experimental control computer can be used to send stimuli to ActiveTwo.

In addition, the following are recommended for the ActiView computer:

  • Network interface and remote storage for data backups
  • Accessories such as KVMA switch box, extra monitor / keyboard / mouse, extension cables, etc to permit access to the EEG display from the separate room for the subject

Maybe.  There is no way the EEG system can harm the TMS system, but there are some TMS systems that are essentially useless with some EEG systems.  You need a a suitable combination of features in each to be successful at all in using TMS with EEG.

Desirable attributes:

  • Coils designed specifically for use with EEG will have a cable that exits the coil tangential to the head surface so that the coil does not pass close by EEG electrodes and cables.
  • A coil to be used with EEG should be passively cooled, since active cooling by means of a fan will induce electromagnetic interference in the EEG.
  • The TMS recharge mechanism should be designed to avoid inducing electromagnetic artifacts in the EEG.
  • The TMS system should be shielded so that no more than 3 milligauss of electromagnetic interference from the TMS system’s power supply reaches the electrodes and cables.
  • The TMS system should be able to produce a TMS pulse in response to an input trigger with a low and predictable latency.  Long, but especially unpredictable latency in responding to an input trigger will result in TMS artifacts that are difficult to impossible to remove from the EEG.

Aside from attributes of the TMS system, there are also important considerations regarding the EEG system in this relationship. See the other FAQ entry on that topic.

No.  There are a few special attributes that are required and others that are desirable.

Required attributes:

  • Inputs should be protected so that they are not damaged by the TMS pulse
  • Frequency response on all channels should be from DC on the low end, since AC coupled inputs will “ring” when presented with a large voltage transient like the TMS artifact

Desirable attributes:

  • Electrodes should have a low-profile so that the TMS coil can be placed as near the head as possible, maximizing penetration depth and current delivery
  • It is important for the EEG system to be able to trigger the TMS system at precisely the same phase with respect to the EEG samples each time a stimulus is delivered.  This will improve the performance of artifact removal algorithms

Aside from attributes of the EEG system, there are also important considerations regarding the TMS system in this relationship. See the other FAQ entry on that topic.

Electrodes and head caps can have positions derived from systems based on the International 1020 System.  When the positions are based on 1020, the labels on the caps and electrodes can either be the actual 1020 position names (such as Fp1, Cz, etc) or they can be what is called ABC, which actually means A1, A2, …A32, B1, B2,…B32, etc  Another way to refer to the ABC labeling is arbitrary alphanumeric.  The 1020 system is not arbitrary because the names are based on anatomical landmarks and the odd=left and even=right numbering is predictable and interpretable.  When you have only one type of cap in your lab, it makes sense to use 1020 labels for caps with positions based on the 1020 system.  However, if you have 32 channel caps AND 64 channel caps, then you might find it useful to be able to use the A1-32 labels for the A cable and the B1-32 labels for the B cable and complementary A1-32 labels on the 32 channel caps and A1-B32 labels on the 64 channel caps.  This way, the A cable can be used for the whole head in 32 channel studies of for just the left side of the head in 64 channel studies.  This does provide a short term savings if you don’t want to have two A cables on-hand, but using 1020 labels on everything is more convenient and at the limit it will not cost any more (because cables that are used less frequently will last longer).

If you have more than one item to be repaired, we will normally issue a separate work order number for each item.  In that case, it is not necessary to ship the items to us separately.  They can be packed together, assuming you pack carefully and include the documentation we request when we send you the work order number:

  • Include the “work order number” on the package and on any documentation in the package.  If a repair is undertaken, the work order number will become the “invoice number” if the repair results in a bill for parts or services.
  • Write a note describing the problem you are having with the part and include it in the package with the part you are returning.  We need to be sure that we are focusing on the same problem that you have been experiencing to do the best job of reporting back to you on the status of the product.
  • Be sure that the note you include with the shipment references as many of the following as possible: the date of purchase, name of purchaser or customer account number.
  • Let us know the address to which repaired parts should be shipped (must be a physical address with a phone number and person’s name).
Categories: ActiveTwo EEG, Support
 The system does not use Lithium Ion batteries that are the focus of a lot of recent concern, but our shippers and airlines may ask questions about the battery.  ActiveTwo is safe to be put in checked luggage or carried on board aircraft.  It uses sealed, non-spillable lead-acid batteries that are safe to fly.  On the outside of any container in which you ship the batteries (may also be relevant for air travel) include the label “Nonspillable Battery”.
Categories: ActiveTwo EEG, Support

Warranty

Hardware

All of our hardware products are delivered with at least a one-year warranty.  This warranty covers materials and manufacturing defects.  If you find that a product is not functioning as it should, please contact us immediately.  We will work with the manufacturer to resolve the problem for you.

There are a few exceptions to the one-year warranty rule:

  • BioSemi ActiveTwo systems are provided with a three-year warranty on the AD box, optical receiver / USB interface, battery charger and AC adapter for the charger.  (Electrodes, head caps and batteries are warranted for one year.)
  • Passive electrodes are provided with a 90 day warranty on materials and workmanship.

Software

All software products are provided with one year of free technical support and upgrades.  Front line support is provided by Cortech Solutions, and our suppliers provide higher-level technical support for advanced features and applications. Future upgrades and ongoing support are managed under a support agreement or subscription renewal, depending on the product.

  • BESA: All bundles and modules are provided with free upgrades and support for a year.  Software upgrades after one year are priced at 20% of the current effective price of the license (depends on included modules and whether first, second or additional license).  You also have the option to purchase additional years of coverage with BESA:
    • 1 additional year (total 2 years) pre-purchased with software:  15%, purchased later: 20% of license price
    • 2 additional years (total 3 years) pre-purchased with software:  30%, purchased later:
      40% of license price
    • 3 additional years (total 4 years) pre-purchased with software:  45%, purchased later: 60% of license price
  • EMSE Suite: All bundles and modules are provided with free upgrades and support for a year.  Software upgrades after one year are priced at 20% of the current effective price of the license (depends on included modules and whether first, second or additional license).
  • Presentation: Since Presentation is licensed on a subscription basis, you have access to the latest software version and technical support for as long as you have a valid license.  Subscriptions are offered with code activations (a license that is tied to a specific computer but can be moved to another computer with some effort) or key activations (using a physical dongle or hardlock), and software upgrades are downloadable when logged into your account at the Neurobs.com website.

Consumable Supplies

Consumable supplies are warranted for 30 days.

Category: Support

We know that nothing makes a laboratory more productive than well-maintained equipment and a staff that is well-trained in its use.  Take advantage of our service options to safeguard the investment you have made in our products.

Support above-and-beyond warranty related issues is offered in the form of Service Level Agreements.  If there are no specific problems with the product, then the type of support you are looking for would be covered under a Service Level Agreement (SLA).

As implied by the name, differing “levels” of service are offered, and you can choose the level of support that best suits you.  SLAs offer technical support coverage over-and-above the basic product warranty, and they are priced accordingly.

SLAs are offered on most products, so this is an important option to consider at the point of purchase.  Although it is usually better to purchase the SLA up-front, if you realize after you have received a product that you will need a higher level of support, it is possible to purchase an SLA after-the-fact.

Two SLA options are available:

  • Level 1 / Distance Support – This SLA offers support for up to 10 incidents with a specific product by telephone, fax or e-mail.  An incident is classified as a question concerning a specific function of a given product.  We expect most of these incidents to be of the “how do I use this product to achieve the following” ilk.  A Level 1 SLA also includes parts, labor and one-way shipping for repairs on covered products.
  • Level 2 / On-Site Support – This SLA offers unlimited distance support incidents plus on-site support for up to 2 incidents.  A Level 2 SLA also includes parts, labor and one-way shipping for repairs on covered products.  As a further safeguard, a Level 2 SLA also includes an annual on-site preventative maintenance visit.
Please contact us if you would like to purchase an SLA.

Before you send anything to us for repair, please contact us so we can assess the situation and be sure that is the best course of action.   Once you have exhausted all available options, we may authorize you to return an item for repair.  At that point, see the steps below under “How to arrange for a repair”.

Many potential questions and problems are covered under the manufacturers’ warranties for the products we sell.  As a general rule, if the item you are trying to use is not broken, then support for that item would either be provided as a part of the original purchase agreement or under an extended service level agreement. See the Service Level Agreements page and the Warranties page for details.

If you feel that you need additional training in the use of the equipment or software that you purchased from us. Please review the upcoming training opportunities under Workshops/Seminars on our Events page and let us know if you do not see a workshop or seminar that covers the topic in which you are interested.

How to arrange for a repair:

  1. Review the User / Operator Manual and/or context-sensitive help provided with the product to determine as best you can whether a repair is needed.
  2. See the on-line FAQ documents.
  3. Contact us to receive additional assistance in identifying possible solutions that may not necessitate the return of the product.
  4. Please provide us with the serial number and the model number of the item you request assistance with as well as the data of purchase and the name of the purchaser or your customer account number.
  5. Ask us for an “issue number” and refer to that issue number when corresponding with us about this problem.  The issue number will become the “work order number” if a repair is undertaken and the “invoice number” if the repair results in a bill for parts or services.
  6. Write a note describing the problem you are having with the part and include it in the package with the part you are returning.  We need to be sure that we are focusing on the same problem that you have been experiencing to do the best job of reporting back to you on the status of the product.
  7. Be sure the note you include with the shipment references the date of purchase, name of purchaser or customer account number, the address to which repaired parts should be shipped (must be a physical address with a phone number and person’s name for FedEx to accept it).
  8. Wrap any electrode contacts in a paper towel to be sure that they stay dry and to insulate them from metal parts on the connector.
  9. Package the product carefully in the original packaging or a comparable container.  Use plenty of packing material (preferably bubble wrap or packing peanuts) to cushion the goods and ensure they do not move around inside the box while it is in transit.  For help on how to package your goods, see the document “How to Pack” at FedEx.com.
  10. Ship the goods via traceable courier service to our address and notify us that the package is en route.
  11. When contacting us to check on the status of your repair, refer to the issue/work order number.
Category: Support

When you purchase a new laboratory instrument, you want to get started using it and producing results as quickly as possible, and nothing helps you accomplish this goal faster than having a trained technician visit your lab to install the system and configure it optimally for your purposes. From our perspective, you will have the best possible experience with our products when the equipment is setup and configured properly and you are properly trained from the beginning. Installation visits are not included in the pricing on our standard price list, but we do generally include an optional installation fee on quotations. We find that customers who receive assistance from the beginning have fewer questions later and have more success using the equipment. We encourage you to invest in this valuable service.  If you would like to arrange an installation and training visit, please contact us!

We will always do our best to respond quickly when you need something urgently.  It helps us immensely if you plan ahead and give us a little advance warning if you foresee a deadline approaching by which you need parts, supplies or repairs to be complete.

For new purchases, we can often pre-order goods for established customers, even before the official institutional PO has been received.  Give us a heads-up as soon as you know that you intend to order items we have quoted you, and if you expect to have the official PO within 30 days, and you agree to let us know if anything changes, we will pre-order the goods for you based on your word.

For repairs, we know how vital our equipment is to your work, so we always do our best to respond quickly to urgent repair requests.  One important point — the earlier we know the date by which a repaired item must be received back, the sooner we can let you know whether we will or will not be able to meet that deadline.  Ultimately, the most valuable thing you can do to ensure we meet your deadlines is to notify us of those deadlines as early as possible!

See our contact details page.

ActiveTwo EEG (7)

ActiveTwo is provided with drivers and host data acquisition software for Windows and Mac computers, and drivers also exist for Linux. Note that certain applications, such as event-related potentials, often require a separate computer to run experimental control / stimulus delivery software.

In brief, the computer requirements for the ActiView data acquisition software are:

  • Operating system: Windows 7, 8, or 10 or Mac OS X
  • RAM: 8 GB or more
  • Hard Drive: recommend 250 GB, but user should anticipate free space needed for data (file size in bytes is approximately = 3 X AD rate in Hz X number of channels X number of seconds recorded)
  • Display: 1440 X 900 or higher resolution display
  • One free USB port

Note: The ActiveTwo computer DOES NOT NEED A PARALLEL PORT.  A parallel port on the experimental control computer can be used to send stimuli to ActiveTwo.

In addition, the following are recommended for the ActiView computer:

  • Network interface and remote storage for data backups
  • Accessories such as KVMA switch box, extra monitor / keyboard / mouse, extension cables, etc to permit access to the EEG display from the separate room for the subject

The ActiveTwo Base System has no channels. The Base System consists of the parts that every ActiveTwo system needs to have, but excludes the parts that are used to custom configure ActiveTwo for various purposes, like amplifier/converter (AC modules).  The AC modules give the system the capacity to record from active electrodes. With four of the eight channel modules, the base system will have the capacity for 32 channels. If you want 32 electrodes on the scalp, then you need four modules, but if you also want to use four individual flat-type electrodes, you need another eight-channel module (four modules for EEG and one module for EXG1-8). The modules have eight channels, so you can only expand the system in increments of eight channels. You don’t have to buy the electrodes to use with EXG5-8, but you need the eight channel module.

Maybe.  There is no way the EEG system can harm the TMS system, but there are some TMS systems that are essentially useless with some EEG systems.  You need a a suitable combination of features in each to be successful at all in using TMS with EEG.

Desirable attributes:

  • Coils designed specifically for use with EEG will have a cable that exits the coil tangential to the head surface so that the coil does not pass close by EEG electrodes and cables.
  • A coil to be used with EEG should be passively cooled, since active cooling by means of a fan will induce electromagnetic interference in the EEG.
  • The TMS recharge mechanism should be designed to avoid inducing electromagnetic artifacts in the EEG.
  • The TMS system should be shielded so that no more than 3 milligauss of electromagnetic interference from the TMS system’s power supply reaches the electrodes and cables.
  • The TMS system should be able to produce a TMS pulse in response to an input trigger with a low and predictable latency.  Long, but especially unpredictable latency in responding to an input trigger will result in TMS artifacts that are difficult to impossible to remove from the EEG.

Aside from attributes of the TMS system, there are also important considerations regarding the EEG system in this relationship. See the other FAQ entry on that topic.

Electrodes and head caps can have positions derived from systems based on the International 1020 System.  When the positions are based on 1020, the labels on the caps and electrodes can either be the actual 1020 position names (such as Fp1, Cz, etc) or they can be what is called ABC, which actually means A1, A2, …A32, B1, B2,…B32, etc  Another way to refer to the ABC labeling is arbitrary alphanumeric.  The 1020 system is not arbitrary because the names are based on anatomical landmarks and the odd=left and even=right numbering is predictable and interpretable.  When you have only one type of cap in your lab, it makes sense to use 1020 labels for caps with positions based on the 1020 system.  However, if you have 32 channel caps AND 64 channel caps, then you might find it useful to be able to use the A1-32 labels for the A cable and the B1-32 labels for the B cable and complementary A1-32 labels on the 32 channel caps and A1-B32 labels on the 64 channel caps.  This way, the A cable can be used for the whole head in 32 channel studies of for just the left side of the head in 64 channel studies.  This does provide a short term savings if you don’t want to have two A cables on-hand, but using 1020 labels on everything is more convenient and at the limit it will not cost any more (because cables that are used less frequently will last longer).

If you have more than one item to be repaired, we will normally issue a separate work order number for each item.  In that case, it is not necessary to ship the items to us separately.  They can be packed together, assuming you pack carefully and include the documentation we request when we send you the work order number:

  • Include the “work order number” on the package and on any documentation in the package.  If a repair is undertaken, the work order number will become the “invoice number” if the repair results in a bill for parts or services.
  • Write a note describing the problem you are having with the part and include it in the package with the part you are returning.  We need to be sure that we are focusing on the same problem that you have been experiencing to do the best job of reporting back to you on the status of the product.
  • Be sure that the note you include with the shipment references as many of the following as possible: the date of purchase, name of purchaser or customer account number.
  • Let us know the address to which repaired parts should be shipped (must be a physical address with a phone number and person’s name).
Categories: ActiveTwo EEG, Support
 The system does not use Lithium Ion batteries that are the focus of a lot of recent concern, but our shippers and airlines may ask questions about the battery.  ActiveTwo is safe to be put in checked luggage or carried on board aircraft.  It uses sealed, non-spillable lead-acid batteries that are safe to fly.  On the outside of any container in which you ship the batteries (may also be relevant for air travel) include the label “Nonspillable Battery”.
Categories: ActiveTwo EEG, Support

The inside diameter of adhesive ring should be about the same size as, or larger than, the diameter of the electrode contact.  The inside diameter of the adhesive ring should not be larger than the outer diameter of the electrode housing.  The outside diameter minus the center hole determines how much surface area contacts the skin, thus determining how tightly the adhesive will adhere to the skin.  Also, the outside diameter will limit how close you can place electrodes to one another and to other features, such as the eyes.

Using ActiveTwo as an example, the electrode contact on a flat-type electrode has a diameter of about 4.5 mm.  An adhesive ring with 5 mm id (center hole) would be  idea, but the 5×13 adhesives are rather expensive because they are manufactured in Europe.  We recommend using a 4×19 or a 4×12 adhesive ring.  The 4×12 is a good choice when placing the electrodes close to one another or close to the eyes for startle measurements.  The 4×19 is a good choice when you have plenty of room and the primary concern is how well the electrodes stick to the skin.

BOLDfonic fMRI audio (6)

No. We are not equipped to perform this as it requires facilities approval. You should consult the manufacturer of the penetration panel as well as your facilities department for proper guidance.

Typically it is not suggested to run the cabling overhead towards the MR scanner as there is potential of coupling with the RF cables of the scanner. If the aim is to reduce stray cabling along the floor it is suggested that the headphones are stored/hung with excess fiber cabling “looped” as to keep it out of the way.

Yes! While not included as standard there is an option for an Optoaccoustics patient microphone available in both basic and noise canceling models. Please request pricing if interested!

Yes! There are headphones that span the full range of infants through adults. Additionally there are insert (air-tube) earphones that can be used for all ages, and for all headcoils.

Shielded BNC cables are routed through a filter box/transformer. The supplied BNC connectors will need to be mounted within your penetration panel, this will require two 11mm holes for this purpose, the supplied RF filters will be connected on the MR side with 9 meters of cabling to connect to the headphones. Typically cables run from the penetration panel located between the control room and scan room, however extending the BNC cabling may also be possible to route it from the equipment room.

The BOLDfonic system is comprised of the MR Confon main console, an operator microphone, a set of patient/participant insert earphones, control room monitoring speakers, along with all audio cables, connectors, and filters necessary for full installation — just supply the audio output from your PC or alternative source via a ⅛ in. audio cable or SPDIF output. Keep in mind that the BOLDfonic system includes the AudioFile unit which can function as an external USB audio card.

BOLDscreen fMRI display (7)

As with some scanners you may be left with a protruding rail or track. For appropriate positioning of the BOLDScreen it is suggested that you purchase a trolley with articulating arm, which will allow for offset fixation and easy adjustment for optimal monitor placement. Please see our trolley/stand options.

Traditionally the BOLDScreen is placed at the rear of the scanner at the end of the bore. The monitor can be viewed with an OEM “viewing mirror” that mounts to the headcoil, these are usually included from the manufacturer of the headcoil. Depending on the size of your scanner’s bore (e.g. 60, 70cm), you may need to offset the BOLDScreen for full field of view. For a 60cm bore scanner, you may have to displace the position roughly one foot.

Most “standard” PC’s are adequately suited for driving the BOLDScreen 32 if they offer a dual-link DVI output. For laptops this can often be achieved by the use of a DisplayPort to Dual-Link DVI adapter. It is important to determine in advance whether your laptop offers a DisplayPort output for this purpose. If you are using a desktop PC then be certain that you have a video card with dual-link DVI, I only repeat this as it is rather important. If you are going through the process of setting up a new PC, I would suggest going with an NVIDEA video card as these are best suited for full functionality (e.g. dithering schemes) of the BOLDScreen 32.

No, the power supply is meant to be powered from outside the MR scan room. A voltage converter unit (VCU) with RF filter is supplied which is to be mounted within the penetration panel, most often between the equipment room and scan room. An 11mm hole (BNC sized) is required for the mounting of the VCU.

The BOLDScreen 32 comes standard with 30 meters of fiber optic cabling (duplex LC/SC), other lengths are possible as this fiber optic cable is available online through various sources. Some choose to run this around the periphery of the scan room, while others prefer to run it through conduit or channeling in the ceiling and have it dropped at the rear of the bore.

The CRS BOLDScreen units have been specifically designed to be directly placed at the rear of the bore of the scanner, without any distance constraints. The BOLDScreen 32 is compatible with scanners with a field strength up to 7T, while the BOLDScreen 23 and 24 are compatible with those up to 3T.

BOLDScreen 32 setup, this consist of: monitor, fiber optic cabling (30 meters), DVI/fiber optic converter, adjustable height aluminum tripod/stand, and power supply and MR friendly converter unit. Often users will opt to purchase a trolley for portability and versatility in setup.

Brite23 wireless NIRS (9)

This is really dependent on the signal quality. Typically for normal cortical penetration you will want anywhere from 3cm up, the larger the distance the deeper the penetration however at the sake of a reduced signal-to-noise ratio. Typically for normal adults we employ a 3.5cm interoptode distance, for those with darker skin or dark/dense hair you may need to reduce this to achieve an ideal SNR. For younger children and infants often times 2.5cm is more common.

Lasers often require greater consideration in application. There are certainly constraints with regard to motility with a laser based setup that may not be of any concern with LED. Preparation times are often greater with laser than LED, as lasers are often added to a headcap one by one, whereas LED sources could sometimes be “pre-populated”.

Lasers naturally provide a very focal output and are excellent with narrow band frequency emission, thus the ability to discretely “tune” the light output is perhaps of some value, as you might imagine when studying the dispersion of light. Additionally modulation of lasers can take place many times fast than that of LED, as there are some capacitive “left-overs” with LED

fNIRS is of course a completely different modality than fMRI, however while the mechanics may differ there is overlap in the resulting measurements, ultimately cerebral blood flow and metabolic measurements may be obtained, and neuronal activation often assumed. fNIRS is specific to oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin measurement and quantification due to light back reflection, while fMRI aligns the orientation of the hemoglobin depending on the presence of oxygen. fNIRS offers a much better temporal resolution often 100x or more, while spatially fMRI has the upper hand by roughly 10x.

Very good, and important, question. Clearly fNIRS is employing frequencies of light that are purposely used to traverse the skull without much restraint, and this is in fact introducing exogenous stimuli. Well don’t fret, the amount of signal power using fNIRS can be comparable to sunlight. Further, of recent, several studies suggest there are various health benefits to infrared light stimulation at the cellular/metabolic level- even still these studies primarily employ chronic use.

This is a tough one, inherently hair is the nemesis of any fNIRS device on the market and while we all would like to say we have this completely figured out it ultimately comes down to proper preparation, part of which is also a skill in performing. I would use the same criteria with regard screening as you may normally do with EEG.

OxySoft is developed for use with Windows 7 or 10, both are supported however Windows 7 is still preferred. We also offer a free Android application for the PortaLite and PortaMon units for streaming and data logging.

Both PortaLite and PortaMon units use a bluetooth connection with a long range antenna up to 150 meters is possible. The Brite 23 system offers a range of 30 meters.

Yes, you may stream up to 7 devices, both wired (OxyMon), and wireless devices (Brite 23, PortaMon/PortaLite) to the same acquisition PC in real time.

Consumable supplies (2)

The inside diameter of adhesive ring should be about the same size as, or larger than, the diameter of the electrode contact.  The inside diameter of the adhesive ring should not be larger than the outer diameter of the electrode housing.  The outside diameter minus the center hole determines how much surface area contacts the skin, thus determining how tightly the adhesive will adhere to the skin.  Also, the outside diameter will limit how close you can place electrodes to one another and to other features, such as the eyes.

Using ActiveTwo as an example, the electrode contact on a flat-type electrode has a diameter of about 4.5 mm.  An adhesive ring with 5 mm id (center hole) would be  idea, but the 5×13 adhesives are rather expensive because they are manufactured in Europe.  We recommend using a 4×19 or a 4×12 adhesive ring.  The 4×12 is a good choice when placing the electrodes close to one another or close to the eyes for startle measurements.  The 4×19 is a good choice when you have plenty of room and the primary concern is how well the electrodes stick to the skin.

EMSE EEG / MEG analysis software (8)

EMSE’s Development Plan emerges from three main streams. First, we listen to your needs and requests (e.g., you might show us what you want during a remote technical/scientific support session). Second, we periodically update and upgrade existing features (e.g., update of boundary element head models; upgrade from 32-bit to 64-bit code). Third, we’re envisioning an integrative role for EMSE in the larger field of human neurophysiology and neuroimaging, so that: (a) EMSE shall perform live analysis and automatic archiving during data acquisition; and (b) EMSE shall cooperate with other tools in an ecosystem based on FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable) principles.

EMSE is developed by Cortech Solutions. We are an agile team with more than 50 years combined experience in the field. Principal developers are Mark Pflieger and Li Gao, who have worked on the EMSE project for 17+ years and 21+ years, respectively. Richard Greenblatt initiated the EMSE project in the early 1990s with roots from the MEG community.

EMSE reads all major research EEG and MEG data formats.

No. EMSE is a self-contained graphical program written in C++ “under the hood” for efficiency. To optimize the speed of standard matrix and math operations, EMSE leverages the Intel® Math Kernel Library.

No, EMSE is modular. The ERP Bundle (Data Editor plus Visualizer) is a powerful and affordable package for discovering and confirming space-time-frequency phenomena at the scalp level, with integrated nonparametric statistics. The Basic Source Estimation Bundle adds the Source Estimator module for brain level modeling. The Locator module digitizes electrode locations, which may be co-registered with MRI using MR Viewer. The Image Processor module can segment head tissues for constructing individual cortex and volume conductor models.

If EEG/ERP is a new addition to your lab, you can use EMSE to rapidly master all of the steps that can lead you to discover and visualize new phenomena in your experimental data. Have you already identified phenomena at the scalp? Then you can use source reconstruction and source signal estimation tools in EMSE to understand where and when these phenomena arise in the cortex. Going further, if you have participant MRIs, then you can use EMSE to sort out meaningful individual differences from incidental differences that derive from personal cortical folding patterns. In all cases, we can remotely assist with the steps.

EMSE is great for helping you, first, to identify robust space-time-frequency phenomena in your EEG or MEG data, and then to interpret those phenomena in brain space by constructing source models, by estimating regional activity, and by deriving inter-regional connectivities. EMSE can use MRI data to construct realistic volume conductor models of the head. Importantly, EMSE reproducibly automates and documents your analysis workflows, including: (a) signal processing pipelines; (b) experimental event logic pipelines; (c) event-related component measurements; and (d) nonparametric statistical hypothesis testing. EMSE is a professionally supported Windows application. We can remotely assist your data analysis process.

EMSE stands for ElectroMagnetic Source Estimation (and we say “MC”).

NeurOne EEG system (2)

Maybe.  There is no way the EEG system can harm the TMS system, but there are some TMS systems that are essentially useless with some EEG systems.  You need a a suitable combination of features in each to be successful at all in using TMS with EEG.

Desirable attributes:

  • Coils designed specifically for use with EEG will have a cable that exits the coil tangential to the head surface so that the coil does not pass close by EEG electrodes and cables.
  • A coil to be used with EEG should be passively cooled, since active cooling by means of a fan will induce electromagnetic interference in the EEG.
  • The TMS recharge mechanism should be designed to avoid inducing electromagnetic artifacts in the EEG.
  • The TMS system should be shielded so that no more than 3 milligauss of electromagnetic interference from the TMS system’s power supply reaches the electrodes and cables.
  • The TMS system should be able to produce a TMS pulse in response to an input trigger with a low and predictable latency.  Long, but especially unpredictable latency in responding to an input trigger will result in TMS artifacts that are difficult to impossible to remove from the EEG.

Aside from attributes of the TMS system, there are also important considerations regarding the EEG system in this relationship. See the other FAQ entry on that topic.

No.  There are a few special attributes that are required and others that are desirable.

Required attributes:

  • Inputs should be protected so that they are not damaged by the TMS pulse
  • Frequency response on all channels should be from DC on the low end, since AC coupled inputs will “ring” when presented with a large voltage transient like the TMS artifact

Desirable attributes:

  • Electrodes should have a low-profile so that the TMS coil can be placed as near the head as possible, maximizing penetration depth and current delivery
  • It is important for the EEG system to be able to trigger the TMS system at precisely the same phase with respect to the EEG samples each time a stimulus is delivered.  This will improve the performance of artifact removal algorithms

Aside from attributes of the EEG system, there are also important considerations regarding the TMS system in this relationship. See the other FAQ entry on that topic.

Octamon wireless NIRS (8)

This is really dependent on the signal quality. Typically for normal cortical penetration you will want anywhere from 3cm up, the larger the distance the deeper the penetration however at the sake of a reduced signal-to-noise ratio. Typically for normal adults we employ a 3.5cm interoptode distance, for those with darker skin or dark/dense hair you may need to reduce this to achieve an ideal SNR. For younger children and infants often times 2.5cm is more common.

Lasers often require greater consideration in application. There are certainly constraints with regard to motility with a laser based setup that may not be of any concern with LED. Preparation times are often greater with laser than LED, as lasers are often added to a headcap one by one, whereas LED sources could sometimes be “pre-populated”.

Lasers naturally provide a very focal output and are excellent with narrow band frequency emission, thus the ability to discretely “tune” the light output is perhaps of some value, as you might imagine when studying the dispersion of light. Additionally modulation of lasers can take place many times fast than that of LED, as there are some capacitive “left-overs” with LED

fNIRS is of course a completely different modality than fMRI, however while the mechanics may differ there is overlap in the resulting measurements, ultimately cerebral blood flow and metabolic measurements may be obtained, and neuronal activation often assumed. fNIRS is specific to oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin measurement and quantification due to light back reflection, while fMRI aligns the orientation of the hemoglobin depending on the presence of oxygen. fNIRS offers a much better temporal resolution often 100x or more, while spatially fMRI has the upper hand by roughly 10x.

Very good, and important, question. Clearly fNIRS is employing frequencies of light that are purposely used to traverse the skull without much restraint, and this is in fact introducing exogenous stimuli. Well don’t fret, the amount of signal power using fNIRS can be comparable to sunlight. Further, of recent, several studies suggest there are various health benefits to infrared light stimulation at the cellular/metabolic level- even still these studies primarily employ chronic use.

This is a tough one, inherently hair is the nemesis of any fNIRS device on the market and while we all would like to say we have this completely figured out it ultimately comes down to proper preparation, part of which is also a skill in performing. I would use the same criteria with regard screening as you may normally do with EEG.

OxySoft is developed for use with Windows 7 or 10, both are supported however Windows 7 is still preferred. We also offer a free Android application for the PortaLite and PortaMon units for streaming and data logging.

Yes, you may stream up to 7 devices, both wired (OxyMon), and wireless devices (Brite 23, PortaMon/PortaLite) to the same acquisition PC in real time.

OxyMon laser-based NIRS (9)

This is really dependent on the signal quality. Typically for normal cortical penetration you will want anywhere from 3cm up, the larger the distance the deeper the penetration however at the sake of a reduced signal-to-noise ratio. Typically for normal adults we employ a 3.5cm interoptode distance, for those with darker skin or dark/dense hair you may need to reduce this to achieve an ideal SNR. For younger children and infants often times 2.5cm is more common.

Lasers often require greater consideration in application. There are certainly constraints with regard to motility with a laser based setup that may not be of any concern with LED. Preparation times are often greater with laser than LED, as lasers are often added to a headcap one by one, whereas LED sources could sometimes be “pre-populated”.

Lasers naturally provide a very focal output and are excellent with narrow band frequency emission, thus the ability to discretely “tune” the light output is perhaps of some value, as you might imagine when studying the dispersion of light. Additionally modulation of lasers can take place many times fast than that of LED, as there are some capacitive “left-overs” with LED

fNIRS is of course a completely different modality than fMRI, however while the mechanics may differ there is overlap in the resulting measurements, ultimately cerebral blood flow and metabolic measurements may be obtained, and neuronal activation often assumed. fNIRS is specific to oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin measurement and quantification due to light back reflection, while fMRI aligns the orientation of the hemoglobin depending on the presence of oxygen. fNIRS offers a much better temporal resolution often 100x or more, while spatially fMRI has the upper hand by roughly 10x.

Very good, and important, question. Clearly fNIRS is employing frequencies of light that are purposely used to traverse the skull without much restraint, and this is in fact introducing exogenous stimuli. Well don’t fret, the amount of signal power using fNIRS can be comparable to sunlight. Further, of recent, several studies suggest there are various health benefits to infrared light stimulation at the cellular/metabolic level- even still these studies primarily employ chronic use.

This is a tough one, inherently hair is the nemesis of any fNIRS device on the market and while we all would like to say we have this completely figured out it ultimately comes down to proper preparation, part of which is also a skill in performing. I would use the same criteria with regard screening as you may normally do with EEG.

OxySoft is developed for use with Windows 7 or 10, both are supported however Windows 7 is still preferred. We also offer a free Android application for the PortaLite and PortaMon units for streaming and data logging.

Depending on your interest, quite a bit. We are able to “tune” the frequencies of the lasers to different wavelengths, thereby offering the possibility to measure things such as Cytohrome C Oxidase (COX), and Indocyanine Green (ICG) tracer. Just let us know if you have anything particular in mind!

Yes, you may stream up to 7 devices, both wired (OxyMon), and wireless devices (Brite 23, PortaMon/PortaLite) to the same acquisition PC in real time.

OxySoft NIRS acquisition and analysis software (5)

This is really dependent on the signal quality. Typically for normal cortical penetration you will want anywhere from 3cm up, the larger the distance the deeper the penetration however at the sake of a reduced signal-to-noise ratio. Typically for normal adults we employ a 3.5cm interoptode distance, for those with darker skin or dark/dense hair you may need to reduce this to achieve an ideal SNR. For younger children and infants often times 2.5cm is more common.

fNIRS is of course a completely different modality than fMRI, however while the mechanics may differ there is overlap in the resulting measurements, ultimately cerebral blood flow and metabolic measurements may be obtained, and neuronal activation often assumed. fNIRS is specific to oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin measurement and quantification due to light back reflection, while fMRI aligns the orientation of the hemoglobin depending on the presence of oxygen. fNIRS offers a much better temporal resolution often 100x or more, while spatially fMRI has the upper hand by roughly 10x.

Very good, and important, question. Clearly fNIRS is employing frequencies of light that are purposely used to traverse the skull without much restraint, and this is in fact introducing exogenous stimuli. Well don’t fret, the amount of signal power using fNIRS can be comparable to sunlight. Further, of recent, several studies suggest there are various health benefits to infrared light stimulation at the cellular/metabolic level- even still these studies primarily employ chronic use.

This is a tough one, inherently hair is the nemesis of any fNIRS device on the market and while we all would like to say we have this completely figured out it ultimately comes down to proper preparation, part of which is also a skill in performing. I would use the same criteria with regard screening as you may normally do with EEG.

OxySoft is developed for use with Windows 7 or 10, both are supported however Windows 7 is still preferred. We also offer a free Android application for the PortaLite and PortaMon units for streaming and data logging.

Portalite wireless cerebral NIRS (9)

This is really dependent on the signal quality. Typically for normal cortical penetration you will want anywhere from 3cm up, the larger the distance the deeper the penetration however at the sake of a reduced signal-to-noise ratio. Typically for normal adults we employ a 3.5cm interoptode distance, for those with darker skin or dark/dense hair you may need to reduce this to achieve an ideal SNR. For younger children and infants often times 2.5cm is more common.

Lasers often require greater consideration in application. There are certainly constraints with regard to motility with a laser based setup that may not be of any concern with LED. Preparation times are often greater with laser than LED, as lasers are often added to a headcap one by one, whereas LED sources could sometimes be “pre-populated”.

Lasers naturally provide a very focal output and are excellent with narrow band frequency emission, thus the ability to discretely “tune” the light output is perhaps of some value, as you might imagine when studying the dispersion of light. Additionally modulation of lasers can take place many times fast than that of LED, as there are some capacitive “left-overs” with LED

fNIRS is of course a completely different modality than fMRI, however while the mechanics may differ there is overlap in the resulting measurements, ultimately cerebral blood flow and metabolic measurements may be obtained, and neuronal activation often assumed. fNIRS is specific to oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin measurement and quantification due to light back reflection, while fMRI aligns the orientation of the hemoglobin depending on the presence of oxygen. fNIRS offers a much better temporal resolution often 100x or more, while spatially fMRI has the upper hand by roughly 10x.

Very good, and important, question. Clearly fNIRS is employing frequencies of light that are purposely used to traverse the skull without much restraint, and this is in fact introducing exogenous stimuli. Well don’t fret, the amount of signal power using fNIRS can be comparable to sunlight. Further, of recent, several studies suggest there are various health benefits to infrared light stimulation at the cellular/metabolic level- even still these studies primarily employ chronic use.

This is a tough one, inherently hair is the nemesis of any fNIRS device on the market and while we all would like to say we have this completely figured out it ultimately comes down to proper preparation, part of which is also a skill in performing. I would use the same criteria with regard screening as you may normally do with EEG.

OxySoft is developed for use with Windows 7 or 10, both are supported however Windows 7 is still preferred. We also offer a free Android application for the PortaLite and PortaMon units for streaming and data logging.

Both PortaLite and PortaMon units use a bluetooth connection with a long range antenna up to 150 meters is possible. The Brite 23 system offers a range of 30 meters.

Yes, you may stream up to 7 devices, both wired (OxyMon), and wireless devices (Brite 23, PortaMon/PortaLite) to the same acquisition PC in real time.

Portamon wireless peripheral NIRS (9)

This is really dependent on the signal quality. Typically for normal cortical penetration you will want anywhere from 3cm up, the larger the distance the deeper the penetration however at the sake of a reduced signal-to-noise ratio. Typically for normal adults we employ a 3.5cm interoptode distance, for those with darker skin or dark/dense hair you may need to reduce this to achieve an ideal SNR. For younger children and infants often times 2.5cm is more common.

Lasers often require greater consideration in application. There are certainly constraints with regard to motility with a laser based setup that may not be of any concern with LED. Preparation times are often greater with laser than LED, as lasers are often added to a headcap one by one, whereas LED sources could sometimes be “pre-populated”.

Lasers naturally provide a very focal output and are excellent with narrow band frequency emission, thus the ability to discretely “tune” the light output is perhaps of some value, as you might imagine when studying the dispersion of light. Additionally modulation of lasers can take place many times fast than that of LED, as there are some capacitive “left-overs” with LED

fNIRS is of course a completely different modality than fMRI, however while the mechanics may differ there is overlap in the resulting measurements, ultimately cerebral blood flow and metabolic measurements may be obtained, and neuronal activation often assumed. fNIRS is specific to oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin measurement and quantification due to light back reflection, while fMRI aligns the orientation of the hemoglobin depending on the presence of oxygen. fNIRS offers a much better temporal resolution often 100x or more, while spatially fMRI has the upper hand by roughly 10x.

Very good, and important, question. Clearly fNIRS is employing frequencies of light that are purposely used to traverse the skull without much restraint, and this is in fact introducing exogenous stimuli. Well don’t fret, the amount of signal power using fNIRS can be comparable to sunlight. Further, of recent, several studies suggest there are various health benefits to infrared light stimulation at the cellular/metabolic level- even still these studies primarily employ chronic use.

This is a tough one, inherently hair is the nemesis of any fNIRS device on the market and while we all would like to say we have this completely figured out it ultimately comes down to proper preparation, part of which is also a skill in performing. I would use the same criteria with regard screening as you may normally do with EEG.

OxySoft is developed for use with Windows 7 or 10, both are supported however Windows 7 is still preferred. We also offer a free Android application for the PortaLite and PortaMon units for streaming and data logging.

Both PortaLite and PortaMon units use a bluetooth connection with a long range antenna up to 150 meters is possible. The Brite 23 system offers a range of 30 meters.

Yes, you may stream up to 7 devices, both wired (OxyMon), and wireless devices (Brite 23, PortaMon/PortaLite) to the same acquisition PC in real time.

PowerMAG TMS (6)

Maybe.  There is no way the EEG system can harm the TMS system, but there are some TMS systems that are essentially useless with some EEG systems.  You need a a suitable combination of features in each to be successful at all in using TMS with EEG.

Desirable attributes:

  • Coils designed specifically for use with EEG will have a cable that exits the coil tangential to the head surface so that the coil does not pass close by EEG electrodes and cables.
  • A coil to be used with EEG should be passively cooled, since active cooling by means of a fan will induce electromagnetic interference in the EEG.
  • The TMS recharge mechanism should be designed to avoid inducing electromagnetic artifacts in the EEG.
  • The TMS system should be shielded so that no more than 3 milligauss of electromagnetic interference from the TMS system’s power supply reaches the electrodes and cables.
  • The TMS system should be able to produce a TMS pulse in response to an input trigger with a low and predictable latency.  Long, but especially unpredictable latency in responding to an input trigger will result in TMS artifacts that are difficult to impossible to remove from the EEG.

Aside from attributes of the TMS system, there are also important considerations regarding the EEG system in this relationship. See the other FAQ entry on that topic.

No.  There are a few special attributes that are required and others that are desirable.

Required attributes:

  • Inputs should be protected so that they are not damaged by the TMS pulse
  • Frequency response on all channels should be from DC on the low end, since AC coupled inputs will “ring” when presented with a large voltage transient like the TMS artifact

Desirable attributes:

  • Electrodes should have a low-profile so that the TMS coil can be placed as near the head as possible, maximizing penetration depth and current delivery
  • It is important for the EEG system to be able to trigger the TMS system at precisely the same phase with respect to the EEG samples each time a stimulus is delivered.  This will improve the performance of artifact removal algorithms

Aside from attributes of the EEG system, there are also important considerations regarding the TMS system in this relationship. See the other FAQ entry on that topic.

You may perform a wide variety of protocols using the PowerMAG system; ppTMS, rTMS, TBS, and even Quattro pulse. Please refer to the following chart to determine which platform is most appropriate for your research.

Category: PowerMAG TMS

The coils used with the PowerMAG system are in fact passively cooled, they utilize quality copper windings with excellent heat dispersion properties. The coils are then placed within a wax like medium that further enhances heat dissipation, as the coil heats up the internal medium changes to a liquid state effectively “absorbing” much of the heat. This is often desired over coils that require additional components for cooling (e.g. fans, pumps, and plumbing), and are considered more robust from an engineering perspective. Additionally there is no maintenance required for our passively cooled coils, nor is there any pre-defined factory set limit to the life of the coil in terms of number of pulses, nor age.

Category: PowerMAG TMS

This really comes down to the properties of the coil utilized. The two main style of stim coils used within the TMS field are figure 8 and round, with figure 8 often being preferred for focal targeting. Typically with the figure 8 coil you would get greatest stimulation at a depth of roughly 2- 2.5cm, with a round style you may achieve a bit more penetration ~2.5-3cm.

Category: PowerMAG TMS

Excellent question! As of currently the PowerMAG is strictly for research purposes, meaning there is no FDA approval on the device, thus it may not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of any pathology. Clinical research is still possible, however must follow the strict adherence to the current guidelines imposed. Chances are if you are having to file for an IRB, then you can use the PowerMAG system for your research.

Category: PowerMAG TMS